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Spring Boot 2.x监控数据可视化(Actuator + Prometheus + Grafana手把手)

目录

TIPS

本文基于Spring Boot 2.1.4,理论支持Spring Boot 2.x所有版本

众所周知,Spring Boot有个子项目Spring Boot Actuator,它为应用提供了强大的监控能力。从Spring Boot 2.0开始,Actuator将底层改为Micrometer,提供了更强、更灵活的监控能力。Micrometer是一个监控门面,可以类比成监控界的 Slf4j

借助Micrometer,应用能够对接各种监控系统,例如:

  • AppOptics
  • Atlas
  • Datadog
  • Dynatrace
  • Elastic
  • Ganglia
  • Graphite
  • Humio
  • Influx
  • JMX
  • KairosDB
  • New Relic
  • Prometheus
  • SignalFx
  • Simple (in-memory)
  • StatsD
  • Wavefront

下面演示如何对接 Prometheus ,并使用 Grafana 实现数据的可视化。

TIPS

童鞋们对Prometheus或Grafana不熟悉也没关系,本文是手把手文章,按步骤操作即可。

编码

编写代码

  • 加依赖

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    <dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
    <groupId>io.micrometer</groupId>
    <artifactId>micrometer-registry-prometheus</artifactId>
    </dependency>

    这里,我们为应用引入了 micrometer-registry-prometheus ,事实上,你想对接上文列表中的哪款监控系统,就写啥。例如想对接 Influx ,则需添加依赖 micrometer-registry-influx

  • 写配置

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    server:
    port: 8080
    spring:
    application:
    name: prometheus-test
    management:
    endpoints:
    web:
    exposure:
    include: 'prometheus'
    metrics:
    tags:
    application: ${spring.application.name}

    如配置所示,指定应用名为 prometheus-test ,并将 Actuator/actuator/prometheus 端点暴露出来; management.metrics.tags.application=prometheus-test 作用是为指标设置一个名为application="prometheus-test" 的Tag,Tag是Prometheus提供的一种能力,从而实现更加灵活的筛选。

测试

  • 启动应用

  • 访问 http://localhost:8080/actuator/prometheus 可获得类似如下的结果:

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    # HELP jvm_memory_used_bytes The amount of used memory
    # TYPE jvm_memory_used_bytes gauge
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Old Gen",} 2.1193976E7
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} 3.8791688E7
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Survivor Space",} 0.0
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 5303976.0
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Eden Space",} 8.2574816E7
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Code Cache",} 8693824.0
    # HELP tomcat_global_received_bytes_total
    # TYPE tomcat_global_received_bytes_total counter
    tomcat_global_received_bytes_total{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_threads_daemon_threads The current number of live daemon threads
    # TYPE jvm_threads_daemon_threads gauge
    jvm_threads_daemon_threads{application="prometheus-test",} 20.0
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_alive_max_seconds
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_alive_max_seconds gauge
    tomcat_sessions_alive_max_seconds{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes An estimate of the memory that the Java virtual machine is using for this buffer pool
    # TYPE jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes gauge
    jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",id="mapped",} 0.0
    jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",id="direct",} 90112.0
    # HELP jvm_threads_states_threads The current number of threads having NEW state
    # TYPE jvm_threads_states_threads gauge
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="runnable",} 9.0
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="new",} 0.0
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="terminated",} 0.0
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="blocked",} 0.0
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="waiting",} 12.0
    jvm_threads_states_threads{application="prometheus-test",state="timed-waiting",} 3.0
    # HELP process_cpu_usage The "recent cpu usage" for the Java Virtual Machine process
    # TYPE process_cpu_usage gauge
    process_cpu_usage{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0030590633504868434
    # HELP logback_events_total Number of error level events that made it to the logs
    # TYPE logback_events_total counter
    logback_events_total{application="prometheus-test",level="info",} 7.0
    logback_events_total{application="prometheus-test",level="warn",} 0.0
    logback_events_total{application="prometheus-test",level="trace",} 0.0
    logback_events_total{application="prometheus-test",level="debug",} 0.0
    logback_events_total{application="prometheus-test",level="error",} 0.0
    # HELP tomcat_global_sent_bytes_total
    # TYPE tomcat_global_sent_bytes_total counter
    tomcat_global_sent_bytes_total{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 195356.0
    # HELP process_files_max_files The maximum file descriptor count
    # TYPE process_files_max_files gauge
    process_files_max_files{application="prometheus-test",} 10240.0
    # HELP tomcat_threads_busy_threads
    # TYPE tomcat_threads_busy_threads gauge
    tomcat_threads_busy_threads{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 1.0
    # HELP process_files_open_files The open file descriptor count
    # TYPE process_files_open_files gauge
    process_files_open_files{application="prometheus-test",} 101.0
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_active_current_sessions
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_active_current_sessions gauge
    tomcat_sessions_active_current_sessions{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total The total number of classes unloaded since the Java virtual machine has started execution
    # TYPE jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total counter
    jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total{application="prometheus-test",} 2.0
    # HELP jvm_memory_committed_bytes The amount of memory in bytes that is committed for the Java virtual machine to use
    # TYPE jvm_memory_committed_bytes gauge
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Old Gen",} 1.5466496E8
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} 4.1418752E7
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Survivor Space",} 1.6252928E7
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 5767168.0
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Eden Space",} 1.73539328E8
    jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Code Cache",} 8716288.0
    # HELP http_server_requests_seconds
    # TYPE http_server_requests_seconds summary
    http_server_requests_seconds_count{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/actuator/prometheus",} 16.0
    http_server_requests_seconds_sum{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/actuator/prometheus",} 0.326299973
    http_server_requests_seconds_count{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/**/favicon.ico",} 3.0
    http_server_requests_seconds_sum{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/**/favicon.ico",} 0.028434427
    # HELP http_server_requests_seconds_max
    # TYPE http_server_requests_seconds_max gauge
    http_server_requests_seconds_max{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/actuator/prometheus",} 0.120627904
    http_server_requests_seconds_max{application="prometheus-test",exception="None",method="GET",outcome="SUCCESS",status="200",uri="/**/favicon.ico",} 0.015596512
    # HELP tomcat_global_error_total
    # TYPE tomcat_global_error_total counter
    tomcat_global_error_total{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes Max size of old generation memory pool
    # TYPE jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes gauge
    jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes{application="prometheus-test",} 2.863661056E9
    # HELP jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes Size of old generation memory pool after a full GC
    # TYPE jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes gauge
    jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes{application="prometheus-test",} 2.1193976E7
    # HELP system_load_average_1m The sum of the number of runnable entities queued to available processors and the number of runnable entities running on the available processors averaged over a period of time
    # TYPE system_load_average_1m gauge
    system_load_average_1m{application="prometheus-test",} 3.9423828125
    # HELP process_uptime_seconds The uptime of the Java virtual machine
    # TYPE process_uptime_seconds gauge
    process_uptime_seconds{application="prometheus-test",} 173.424
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_expired_sessions_total
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_expired_sessions_total counter
    tomcat_sessions_expired_sessions_total{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_gc_pause_seconds Time spent in GC pause
    # TYPE jvm_gc_pause_seconds summary
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_count{action="end of minor GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 1.0
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_sum{action="end of minor GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 0.012
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_count{action="end of major GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 1.0
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_sum{action="end of major GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 0.045
    # HELP jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max Time spent in GC pause
    # TYPE jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max gauge
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max{action="end of minor GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 0.012
    jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max{action="end of major GC",application="prometheus-test",cause="Metadata GC Threshold",} 0.045
    # HELP jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total Count of positive increases in the size of the old generation memory pool before GC to after GC
    # TYPE jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total counter
    jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total{application="prometheus-test",} 1.06878E7
    # HELP jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total Incremented for an increase in the size of the young generation memory pool after one GC to before the next
    # TYPE jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total counter
    jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total{application="prometheus-test",} 7.8713648E7
    # HELP tomcat_global_request_seconds
    # TYPE tomcat_global_request_seconds summary
    tomcat_global_request_seconds_count{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 19.0
    tomcat_global_request_seconds_sum{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 0.432
    # HELP jvm_threads_live_threads The current number of live threads including both daemon and non-daemon threads
    # TYPE jvm_threads_live_threads gauge
    jvm_threads_live_threads{application="prometheus-test",} 24.0
    # HELP jvm_buffer_count_buffers An estimate of the number of buffers in the pool
    # TYPE jvm_buffer_count_buffers gauge
    jvm_buffer_count_buffers{application="prometheus-test",id="mapped",} 0.0
    jvm_buffer_count_buffers{application="prometheus-test",id="direct",} 11.0
    # HELP process_start_time_seconds Start time of the process since unix epoch.
    # TYPE process_start_time_seconds gauge
    process_start_time_seconds{application="prometheus-test",} 1.556017153576E9
    # HELP tomcat_threads_config_max_threads
    # TYPE tomcat_threads_config_max_threads gauge
    tomcat_threads_config_max_threads{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 200.0
    # HELP system_cpu_count The number of processors available to the Java virtual machine
    # TYPE system_cpu_count gauge
    system_cpu_count{application="prometheus-test",} 8.0
    # HELP tomcat_threads_current_threads
    # TYPE tomcat_threads_current_threads gauge
    tomcat_threads_current_threads{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 10.0
    # HELP jvm_memory_max_bytes The maximum amount of memory in bytes that can be used for memory management
    # TYPE jvm_memory_max_bytes gauge
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Old Gen",} 2.863661056E9
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} -1.0
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Survivor Space",} 1.6252928E7
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 1.073741824E9
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Eden Space",} 1.395654656E9
    jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="nonheap",id="Code Cache",} 2.5165824E8
    # HELP jvm_threads_peak_threads The peak live thread count since the Java virtual machine started or peak was reset
    # TYPE jvm_threads_peak_threads gauge
    jvm_threads_peak_threads{application="prometheus-test",} 29.0
    # HELP jvm_classes_loaded_classes The number of classes that are currently loaded in the Java virtual machine
    # TYPE jvm_classes_loaded_classes gauge
    jvm_classes_loaded_classes{application="prometheus-test",} 7936.0
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_active_max_sessions
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_active_max_sessions gauge
    tomcat_sessions_active_max_sessions{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP tomcat_global_request_max_seconds
    # TYPE tomcat_global_request_max_seconds gauge
    tomcat_global_request_max_seconds{application="prometheus-test",name="http-nio-8080",} 0.161
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_created_sessions_total
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_created_sessions_total counter
    tomcat_sessions_created_sessions_total{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP tomcat_sessions_rejected_sessions_total
    # TYPE tomcat_sessions_rejected_sessions_total counter
    tomcat_sessions_rejected_sessions_total{application="prometheus-test",} 0.0
    # HELP jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes An estimate of the total capacity of the buffers in this pool
    # TYPE jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes gauge
    jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes{application="prometheus-test",id="mapped",} 0.0
    jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes{application="prometheus-test",id="direct",} 90112.0
    # HELP system_cpu_usage The "recent cpu usage" for the whole system
    # TYPE system_cpu_usage gauge
    system_cpu_usage{application="prometheus-test",} 0.2523364485981308

    该端点返回的数据结构是Prometheus需要使用的。对照注释,相信大家能看懂每一项的含义。例如:

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    # HELP jvm_memory_used_bytes The amount of used memory
    # TYPE jvm_memory_used_bytes gauge
    jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="prometheus-test",area="heap",id="PS Old Gen",} 2.1193976E7

    表示:prometheus-test 应用堆内存中的 PS Old Gen 区域占用的空间是 2.1193976E7 字节。

对接Prometheus

Prometheus是一款开源的监控 + 时序数据库 + 报警软件,由SoundCloud公司开发的。目前在CNCF基金会托管,并已成功孵化。

官方网站

  • Prometheus官方网站
  • Prometheus GitHub

安装Prometheus

TIPS

简单期间,本文使用Docker方式安装,其他方式安装请详见 Prometheus安装说明 。

  • 准备配置文件,命名为prometheus.yml

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    scrape_configs:
    # 任意写,建议英文,不要包含特殊字符
    - job_name: 'spring'
    # 多久采集一次数据
    scrape_interval: 15s
    # 采集时的超时时间
    scrape_timeout: 10s
    # 采集的路径是啥
    metrics_path: '/actuator/prometheus'
    # 采集服务的地址,设置成上面Spring Boot应用所在服务器的具体地址。
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['30.1.229.89:8080']

    这样配置后,Prometheus服务器就会自动每隔15秒请求 http://30.1.229.89:8080/actuator/prometheus 。更多配置项详见 Prometheus Configuration官方文档

  • prometheus.yml 文件所在目录执行如下命令,即可启动Prometheus

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    docker run -d -p 9090:9090 \
    -v $(pwd)/prometheus.yml:/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml \
    prom/prometheus --config.file=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml

测试

  • 访问http://localhost:9090 ,可看到类似如下的界面

    Prometheus-1

  • 点击 Insert metric at cursor ,即可选择监控指标;点击 Graph ,即可让指标以图表方式展示;点击Execute 按钮,即可看到类似下图的结果:

    Prometheus-2

Grafana可视化

至此,已经用Prometheus实现了监控数据的可视化,然而使用体验并不好。下面来用Grafana实现更友好、更贴近生产的监控可视化。

Grafana是一个开源的跨平台度量分析和可视化 + 告警工具。

官方网站

  • Grafana官方网站
  • Grafana GitHub

安装Grafana

TIPS

简单期间,本文使用Docker方式安装,其他方式安装请详见 Grafana安装说明 。

  • 启动

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    docker run -d -p 3000:3000 grafana/grafana

配置

  • 登录:访问 http://localhost:3000/login ,初始账号/密码为:admin/admin ,登录后,即可看到类似如下的界面

    Grafana-1

  • 点击Add data source ,即可看到类似如下的界面:

    Grafana-2

  • 点击Prometheus,即可看到类似如下界面:

    Grafana-3

  • 填写Prometheus的首页地址,并点击 Save & Test

创建监控Dashboard

  • 点击导航栏上的 + 按钮,并点击Dashboard,将会看到类似如下的界面:Grafana-4

  • 点击 Add Query ,即可看到类似如下的界面:

    Grafana-5

    在白框标记的位置输入指标,指标的取值详见Spring Boot应用的 /actuator/prometheus 端点,例如jvm_memory_used_bytesjvm_threads_states_threadsjvm_threads_live_threads 等,Grafana会给你较好的提示,并且支持较为复杂的计算,例如聚合、求和、平均等。如果想要绘制多个线条,可点击Add Query 按钮,如上图所示,笔者为图表绘制了两条线,分别代表daemon以及peak线程。

  • 点击下图的按钮,并填入Title,即可设置图表标题。

    Grafana-6

  • 按下图步骤操作,即可为Dashboard添加新的图表。

    Grafana-7

Dashboard市场

至此,已可用Grafana实现较为丰富的图表展示——可将关心的监控指标放置到Dashboard上,并且非常灵活!然而,这个配置的操作虽然不难,但还是挺费时间的……

那么是否有配置好的又强大、又通用、拿来即用的Dashboard呢?答案是肯定的!前往 Grafana Lab - Dashboards ,输入关键词即可搜索指定Dashboard。

Grafana-8

如上图所示,可以找到若干款以 Prometheus 作为数据源,支持Micrometer的Dashboard!下面,来演示如何使用 JVM(Micrometer) 这个Dashboard。

其他Dashboard使用方式大同小异,建议使用前先点击了解下详情,一般Dashboard中都会有说明。

  • 点击 JVM(Micrometer) 进入Dashboard详情介绍页,如下图所示:

    Grafana-9

    如图已详细描述了该Dashboard的特性、配置。其中的management.metrics.tags.application ,前面已经配置过了;本例也不打算演示 Process memory 特性,所以 micrometer-jvm-extras 怎么用也不打算引入了(这是该Dashboard作者为Micrometer提供的增强包,有兴趣的童鞋可自行点击过去研究)。

    细心的童鞋会发现,该页的右上角有个 4701 这是一个非常重要的数字!

  • 访问http://localhost:3000 ,按下图步骤操作:

    Grafana-10

  • 输入后即可看到类似如下的界面,选择数据源,并点击Import。

    Grafana-11

  • 此时,即可看到类似如下的界面,如图所示,我们常关心的指标该Dashboard均已支持!

    Grafana-12

比较好用的Dashboard

  • JVM (Micrometer)
  • JVM (Actuator)
  • Spring Boot Statistics ,注:该Dashboard可能有Bug,笔者未能直接测试成功,做了一些改动后才能正常显示。

以上三款是笔者亲测较为全面、好用的Dashboard,仅供参考。

告警

Grafana支持的告警渠道非常丰富,例如邮件、钉钉、Slack、Webhook等,非常实用!比较简单,各位看官自行研究下吧。

配套代码

  • GitHub
  • Gitee

其中 prometheus+grafana 目录已提供Docker一键部署Prometheus + Grafana的Shell。

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